The American Rescue Project provides resource information that we gather from a variety of vetted sources. We provide this information as a public service.
Indicators of Human Trafficking
Recognizing key indicators of human trafficking is the first step in identifying victims and can help save a life. Here are some common indicators to help recognize human trafficking. You can also download or order the Blue Campaign indicator card, which is a small plastic card that lists common signs of trafficking and how to report the crime.
- Does the person appear disconnected from family, friends, community organizations, or houses of worship?
- Has a child stopped attending school?
- Has the person had a sudden or dramatic change in behavior?
- Is a juvenile engaged in commercial sex acts?
- Is the person disoriented or confused, or showing signs of mental or physical abuse?
- Does the person have bruises in various stages of healing?
- Is the person fearful, timid, or submissive?
- Does the person show signs of having been denied food, water, sleep, or medical care?
- Is the person often in the company of someone to whom he or she defers? Or someone who seems to be in control of the situation, e.g., where they go or who they talk to?
- Does the person appear to be coached on what to say?
- Is the person living in unsuitable conditions?
- Does the person lack personal possessions and appear not to have a stable living situation?
- Does the person have freedom of movement? Can the person freely leave where they live? Are there unreasonable security measures?
Not all indicators listed above are present in every human trafficking situation, and the presence or absence of any of the indicators is not necessarily proof of human trafficking.
For more information, please visit the links below.
Law Enforcement Provides some great resources and training programs, visit their sites to find out more.
Department of Justice DOJ
- Home » Human Trafficking | What is Human Trafficking? | Key Legislation | What DOJ is Doing | Department of Justice Components | Special Initiatives
- A Whole Government Approach | Press Room | Resources | Report Human Trafficking
Child Sex Trafficking
- CEOS Home | CEOS Mission | Press Room | Subject Areas | Child Pornography | Child Sex Trafficking | Child Sexual Abuse | Child Support Enforcement
- Extraterritorial Sexual Exploitation of Children | International Parental Kidnapping | Obscenity | Sex Offender Registration | 18 U.S.C §§ 2257- 2257A Certifications | Keeping Children Safe Online | Project Safe Childhood | Citizen’s Guide to U.S. Federal Child Exploitation Laws | Internships | Report Violations
DHS Center for Countering Human Trafficking
The mission of the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Center for Countering Human Trafficking (CCHT) is to advance counter human trafficking law enforcement operations, protect victims, and enhance prevention efforts by aligning DHS’ capabilities and expertise. The CCHT is a DHS-wide effort comprised of 16 supporting offices and components and is led by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI). The CCHT is the first unified, inter-component coordination center for countering human trafficking and the importation of goods produced with forced labor.
Guided by the DHS Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking, the Importation of Goods Produced with Forced Labor, and Child Sexual Exploitation, CCHT integrates the efforts of every component within DHS involved in combating human trafficking. DHS efforts range across criminal investigations, victim assistance, identifying and reporting human trafficking, external outreach, intelligence, and training. The CCHT better equips and positions DHS to accomplish and improve every aspect of its counter human trafficking efforts.
The victim-centered approach seeks to minimize additional trauma, mitigate undue penalization, and stabilize and support victims. In doing so, it encourages survivors to participate actively in investigations, enabling law enforcement to better detect, investigate, and prosecute perpetrators. Additionally, DHS Secretary Mayorkas has directed DHS components to incorporate a victim-centered approach into all policies, programs, and activities governing DHS interactions with victims of crime.
Continued Presence is a temporary immigration designation provided to individuals identified by law enforcement as trafficking victims who may be potential witnesses. CP allows trafficking victims to lawfully remain in the U.S. temporarily and work during the investigation into the human trafficking-related crimes committed against them and during any civil action under 18 U.S.C. § 1595 filed by the victims against their traffickers. CP not only authorizes the victim to remain in the United States for two years and is renewable but also provides a free work permit and eligibility for other federal benefits and services.
In the earliest stages of an investigation, Continued Presence is the best vehicle for federal, state and local law enforcement to obtain temporary and quick legal immigration protection for trafficking victims. This combination of protections stabilizes victims, restores self-sufficiency and improves their ability to assist law enforcement.
Role of ICE
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a leader in the global fight against human trafficking, proactively identifying, disrupting and dismantling cross-border human trafficking organizations and minimizing the risk they pose to national security and public safety. Through Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO), a victim-centered approach is used placing equal value on the identification and stabilization of victims and on the deterrence, investigation and prosecution of traffickers.
HSI plays an integral role in combatting human trafficking by working with its law enforcement partners to deter, disrupt and dismantle the criminal network engaged in trafficking activities. It accomplishes this mission by making full use of its authorities and expertise, seizing assets and eliminating profit incentives, and working in partnership with non-governmental organizations to protect and assist victims and bring traffickers to justice.
Special agents work closely with the HSI Victim Assistance Program (VAP), a central piece of HSI’s victim-centered approach to investigations into crimes of victimization and exploitation. The VAP responds to victim issues in a wide range of federal crimes, including human trafficking. The VAP provides a critical resource to HSI investigations and criminal prosecutions by ensuring that victims have access to the rights and services to which they are entitled by law, as well as the assistance they need so that they can participate actively and fully in the criminal justice system process.
ERO plays a vital role in countering human trafficking because of the noncitizen population with whom they interact. This population could have been victimized prior to ERO engagement or anytime during their immigration status adjudication. ERO identifies, screens and responds to potential victims and traffickers within its detention centers. ERO personnel work closely with ICE Intelligence and HSI for review and potential investigation.
ICE plays a critical role in supporting the DHS Center for Countering Human Trafficking (CCHT) mission to advance counter human trafficking law enforcement operations, protect victims and enhance prevention efforts by aligning DHS’ capabilities and expertise. The CCHT is the first unified, intercomponent coordination center for countering human trafficking and the importation of goods produced with forced labor. It is a DHS-wide effort comprised of 16 supporting offices and components, led by ICE HSI. Additionally, ERO’s Custody Programs Division (CPD) and the ICE ERO National Fugitive Operations Program (NFOP) are designated liaison components to the CCHT.
How You Can Help
Nationwide, ICE participates in a variety of human trafficking awareness events in January and throughout the year to educate medical professionals, key industries and the general public to identify indicators of trafficking activities. The recognition of human trafficking by others can save a victim’s life and help the investigation and prosecution of traffickers.
Task Forces: HSI participates in human trafficking task forces nationwide, alongside other federal, tribal, state and local law enforcement. HSI also works with other investigative authorities, such as code inspectors, labor officials and child welfare investigators who are likely to come across trafficking in the course of their work. Essential partners in the task force effort are victim services organizations who provide case management and social services that help to stabilize victims. Additionally, HSI participates in the federal Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams along with the Department of Justice (DOJ), the Department of Labor (DOL) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to coordinate proactively and plan significant federal human trafficking investigations and prosecutions.
Victim Service Providers and Community Based Organizations: Victim service providers offer comprehensive and culturally appropriate services to victims, including shelter, food, clothing, medical and mental health care, job training and employment placement, legal counsel, interpretation and more depending on the unique needs of the victim. HSI also works closely with community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, workers’ rights groups, migrant and refugee organizations and others to ensure the community is informed of trafficking indicators to provide tips and referrals for investigations.
Federal Government: Committed to a whole of government approach, multiple federal agencies are engaged in human trafficking prevention, prosecution and protection efforts. Specific to enforcement, HSI works closely with prosecutors at the DOJ and U.S. Attorney’s Offices as well as investigators at the FBI and the DOL.
Foreign Law Enforcement: The success of HSI’s international human trafficking operations is dependent on support from foreign law enforcement partners. Some trafficking investigations begun in the United States will link to individuals and networks in other countries, oftentimes where the victims were originally recruited. HSI bolsters these relationships with human trafficking training to foreign law enforcement partners through the International Law Enforcement Academies worldwide.
Blue Campaign: The Blue Campaign, which is part of the CCHT, raises public awareness about human trafficking, leveraging partnerships to educate the public to recognize human trafficking and report suspected instances. The Blue Campaign also offers training to law enforcement and others to increase detection and investigation of human trafficking, and to protect victims and bring suspected traffickers to justice. To view all available Blue Campaign resources, please visit their resources page.
- DHS Blue Campaign: A variety of human trafficking awareness materials to help educate the public to watch out for signs and indicators of trafficking and report suspected trafficking to law enforcement. Tailored resources for law enforcement are available here.
- ICE Continued Presence Program: Continued Presence (CP) is a temporary immigration designation provided to individuals identified by law enforcement as trafficking victims who may be potential witnesses. CP allows trafficking victims to lawfully remain in the U.S. temporarily and work during the investigation into the human trafficking-related crimes committed against them and during any civil action under 18 U.S.C. § 1595 filed by the victims against their traffickers. CP not only authorizes the victim to remain in the United States for two years and is renewable but also provides a free work permit and eligibility for other federal benefits and services. ICE manages the Continued Presence Program and the CCHT processes all Continued Presence (CP) applications for federal, state and local law enforcement nationwide.
- Continued Presence Resource Guide: The CP Resource Guide assists law enforcement agencies, civil attorneys, service providers, human trafficking victims, and survivors, and others better understand this important tool used as part of a victim-centered approach to combat human trafficking.
- Brochure | Continued Presence: Law enforcement may request CP for victims of human trafficking who are potential witnesses to remain in the U.S. temporarily with work authorization during the ongoing investigation into the human trafficking crimes committed against them.
- Continued Presence Webinars for Law Enforcement: The CCHT hosts quarterly webinars to educate law enforcement on the CP program and processes.
- Brochure | Information for Victims of Human Trafficking: This brochure provides information to help understand your rights under federal law as a victim of human trafficking in the United States as well as assistance that is available throughout the investigation and beyond.
- Brochure | Information for Victims of Crime: This brochure provides information to help deal with the problems and questions that often arise during a federal investigation. It describes a victim’s rights under federal law and the services available.
- U.S. Immigration Benefits for Noncitizen Crime Victims: This infographic provides information on the available immigration relief options for noncitizen crime victims and their respective eligibility requirements.
- T Visa Resource Guide for law enforcement and certifying agencies: The T Visa Resource Guide provides information to law enforcement and other certifying agencies on how to support victims of human trafficking while they investigate and prosecute these crimes.